In 2008, China, Russia (12,000 t) and South Africa (17,000 t) accounted for 98% of world vanadium mine production. In these three countries, vanadium was primarily recovered from titanium-bearing magnetite ore processed to produce pig iron. The process entails aluminothermic reduction of vanadium (V) oxide, aluminium (as oxide getter), and scrap iron.This produces a slag containing 20% to 24% vanadium pentoxide, which can be further processed to ferrovanadium containing 40% to 50% vanadium. Of the 5,090 t of vanadium consumed in the United States in 2008, 84% came from ferrovanadium and nearly all of it (99%) went into steel manufacturing.
Metals we sell
The copper, nickel, tin and zinc metals are priced and hedged using the London Metal Exchange (LME), which allows our customer to fix price forward basis current market prices.